I Listening Comprehension (20 points)育龙网 kaobo.net
Directions: In this section you will hear 10 short conversation. At the end of each conversation, a question will be asked about what was said. Each conversation and question will be spoken only once. After each question there will be a pause. During the pause, you must read the four suggested answers marked A, B, C, and D, and decide which is the best answer. Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet A with a single line through the center.
1. A. The man has more work to do on his paper than Edward on his.
B. The man himself will speak to Edward about his research paper.
C. The man has been talking to Edward about his paper.
D. The man has finished more than half of his research paper.
2. A. 64 B. 70 C. 85 D. 31
3. A. Getting extra credits.
B. The credit hours required for an M.A. degree.
C. The requirements of an M.A. thesis.
D. Taking more selected courses.
4. A. At the airport. B. In a travel agency.
C. In a hotel. D. At the reception desk.
5. A. He is still being treated in the hospital.
B. He’ll rest at home for another two weeks.
C. He returned to work last week.
D. He has had an operation.
6. A. They were both busy doing their own work.
B. They went to the street corner at different places.
C. They waited for each other at different places.
D. The man went to the concert but the woman didn’t
7. A. He didn’t clean the lab.
B. His roommate is messy.
C. He needs to clean the lab.
D. He helped the man clean his apartment.
8. A. Find out when the new job begins.
B. Make more copies of the letter.
C. Ask for an extension to apply for the job.
D. Get a more recent reference letter.
9. A. Her back hurt during the meeting.
B. His support would have helped this afternoon.
C. Her proposal should be sent back.
D. She agreed that it was a good meeting.
10. A. The man should buy the picture at once.
B. The man should live only with 10 dollars a month.
C. The man should ask mother for more money.
D. The man should not buy the picture.
Directions: In this section you will hear 3 short passages. At the end of each passage, you will hear some questions. Both the passage and questions will be spoken only once. After you hear a question, you must choose the best answer from the four choices marked A, B, C, and D. Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet A with a single line through the center.
Questions 11 to 13 are based on the passage you have just heard.
11. A. One sixth of them are seriously polluted.育龙网 kaobo.net
B. One third of them are seriously polluted.
C. Half of them are seriously polluted.
D. Most of them are seriously polluted.
12. A. There was no garbage left to clean up.
B. There was more garbage than before and they had to work harder.
C. The river had become so clean that a lot of water-birds come back.
D. The river was much cleaner and they had to search for garbage.
13. A. Most of them would be indifferent and keep on throwing garbage into the river.
B. They would join the students in changing the situation.
C. They would become more aware of the pollution problem.
D. They would think twice before they went swimming or fishing in the river.
Questions 14 to 16 are based on the passage you have just heard.
14. A. They are usually cleverer.
B. They get tired easily.
C. They are more likely to make minor mental errors.
D. They are more skillful in handling equipment.
15. A. It had its limitations.
B. Its results were regarded as final.
C. It was supported by the government.
D. It was not sound theoretically.
16. A. Their lack of concentration resulting from mental stress.
B. The lack of consideration for them in equipment design.
C. The problem of their getting excited easily.
D. Their slowness in responding.
Questions 17 to 20 are based on the passage you have just heard.
17. A. Because people might have to migrated there someday.
B. Because it is very much like the earth.
C. Because it is easier to explore than other planets.
D. Because its atmosphere is different from that of the earth.
18. A. Its chemical elements must be studied.
B. Its temperature must be lowered.
C. Big spaceships must be built.
D. Its atmosphere must be changed.
19. A. It influences the surface temperature of Mars.
B. It protects living beings from harmful rays.
C. It keeps a planet from overheating.
D. It is the main component of the air people breathe.
20. A. Man will probably be able to live there in 200 years.
B. Scientists are rather pessimistic about it.
C. Man will probably be able to live there in 100,000 years’ time.
D. Scientists are optimistic about overcoming the difficulties soon.
Section C (注意：请将此题写在答题纸上)
Directions: In this section, you’ll hear a short passage. Some important words have been taken away from the written passage. Fill in the missing words. The passage will be read to you twice. There will be a pause after the first time. During the pause you should check what you have written down. And then you will listen to it again. Write your answers on Answer Sheet B. write one word in each blank.
To be successful in a job interview, you should demonstrate certain and professional qualities. 育龙网 kaobo.net
You need to create a good 1 in the limited time available, usually from 30 to 40 minutes. Furthermore, you must make a 2 impression which the interviewer will remember while he interviews other 3 . At all times, you should present your most attractive 4 during an interview. You should, for example, to take care to appear well-groomed and modestly dressed, avoiding the 5 of too elaborate or too casual. On the other hand, clothes which are too informal may 6 the impression that you are not serious about the job or that you may be casual about your work as well as your dress. The right clothes worn at the right time, however, gain the respect of the interviewer and his confidence in your 7 . It may not be true that “clothes make the man”, but the first and often the lasting impression of you is 8 by the clothes you wear. Besides care for personal appearance, you should pay close attention to your manner of speaking. You should reflect confidence in a clear voice, loud enough to be heard. Although there are culture differences with respect of 9 of the job interview, your speech must show you to be a friendly 10 person.
Section D (注意：此题在答题纸上)
Directions: In this section, you will hear a passage. The passage will be spoken twice. The answer questions B1, B2, B3, and B4 in English on Answer Sheet B.
B1. Which countries are the most popular package holiday destinations?
B2. Why have long-haul holidays become more popular in Britain?
B3. About how many travel agencies are there in Britain?
B4. What does “package holiday” cover?
II. Vocabulary and Structure (15 points)
Directions: There are 15 incomplete sentences in this part, For each sentence there are four choices marked A, B, C, and D. Choose the ONE that best completes the sentences. Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet A.
21. The advertising industry has resorted to self-regulation in a serious effort to not only bad taste but also misrepresentation and deception in copy and illustrations.
A. abbreviate B. abrogate C. curtail D. discern
22. If the check does not cover the full amount of your medical expense, mail the Medicare Explanation of Benefits (MEOB) to your carrier in order to receive for the balance of your expense.
A. endowment B. indorse C. reciprocation D. reimbursement
23. For some of the more powerful states, these inter-governmental bureaucracies are also welcome to the authority of the sated, so that a very real symbiosis exists between the national bureaucracy and the international one.
A. adjacency B. adjustments C. adjournment D. adjuncts
24. As soon as she saw him enter the room she him and insisted that he join her for dinner.
A. bore down B. bore down on C. bore out D. bore up
25. There have been a few powerful political organizations that have operated not just
One country but national borders.
A. in …in B. in … at 育龙网 kaobo.net C. within …across D. out of…in
26. Even though the Italian authorities may no longer any old bank that gets into trouble, the likelihood of government support for big banks has not changed enough to affect its ratings.
A. bail out B. hang up C. knock over D. lash out
27. Politics is to include all activities others are persuaded or coerced to collaborate in the achievement of aims designated and desired by another.
A. by which B. at which C. in which D. of which
28. the structural imbalances in the budget, and also in the economy the Administration has given its support to a constitutional amendment.
A. To relinquish B. To remedy C. Redressing for D. Compensating to
29. Reasoning powers can deteriorate; people may begin to think irrationally; they may begin to feel that others are slyly poking fun at them, or being .
A. condescending or patronizing B. condescended or patronized
C. condescend and patronizing D. condescended and patronized
30. Men ambition is the leading passion are likely to love women who assist them in their career, and it would be very shallow psychology to suppose that the love is not real because it has its instinctive root in self-interest.
A. of whom B. in whose C. in whom D. with whom
31. This involves not only the introduction of new practices into a system, but their consolidation and continuation after the first enthusiastic impulse has .
A. worn away B. worn down C. worn off D. worn out
32. Although her research topic had been approved by her thesis advisor, the library persisted
A. in its denial for access on B. in denying her access to
C. to deny her access to D. with denying her access for
33. Clearly, “getting prices right” and the “free” and “unhindered” flow of goods and services within and between countries are proving to be more difficult than .
A. were once anticipated B. are once anticipated
C. was once anticipated D. is once anticipated
34. Although there was not a deliberate effort to discriminate sex, it was clear that the opportunities for girls to take CDT or for boys to take home economics were severely limited by the way the curriculum was organized.
A. to B. from 育龙网 kaobo.net C. in favor of D. on the grounds of
35. The diffusion of power among so many governments, and from them to non-state authorities makes it more difficult for policy-makers to take .
A. the long, more social and economical enlightened view
B. the long, more socially and economically enlightened view
C. the long, more social and economical enlightening view
D. the long, more socially and economically enlightening view
Ⅲ. Cloze (10 points)
Directions: For each of the blanks, there are four choices given marked A, B, C, and D. Choose the one that best fits the blank and mark your choice by blackening the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet A.
Impatience characterizes young intellectual worker. They want to make their mark fast. So it’s important to 36 them in a challenging manner the idea 37 big achievements rarely come easily and quickly. Point out that the little successes are 38 . Show that they 39 become the foundation on which reputations are built and 40 more important tasks can be accomplished.
A variety of job assignments, including job or project rotation, also keep a job from becoming dull. 41 it’s natural for some individuals to want to move ahead immediately to more difficult assignments, 42 proper guidance they can continue to learn and to gain 43 by working on a number of jobs that are essentially 44 . This way they gain breadth, if 45 .
Probably the greatest offense to 46 when dealing with younger specialists is to reject ideas 47 . You must listen---and listen objectively---to their suggestions. Avoid 48 overcritical. You want to nurture an inquiring mind with a fresh approach. You’ll 49 quickly if you revert 50 “We’ve tried that before and it won’t work here.”
One sure way to 51 young college graduates is flagrantly misusing their talents. Expect them to do some routine work, of course. But don’t make their daily work just one long series of errands. This includes such break-in assignments 52 performing routine calculations, digging up reference material, and operating reproduction equipment. One large manufacturing company recently interviewed a number of promising engineers who 53 them. The company found that the overwhelming complaint was that the company 54 did not offer work that was challenging but also expected 55 little from them in the way of performance.
36. A. get down to B. get across to C. get at D. get into
37. A. to which B. what 育龙网 kaobo.net C. that D. how
38. A. valueless B. unimportant C. rare D. essential
39. A. in turn B. in future C. on time D. at present
40. A. on which B. from which C. in which D. for that
41. A. Whereas B. When C. Because D. But
42. A. for B. on C. under D. in
43. A. reputation B. importance C. versatility D. knowledge
44. A. of the same quality B. of the same complexity
C. the same D. different
45. A. the same width B. not length C. the same height D. not depth
46. A. guard B. guard at C. guard against D. guard on
47. A. out of hand B. at hand C. in hand D. on hand
48. A. to B. being C. too D.
49. A. frustrate B. frustrate it C. be frustrate D. be frustrated
50. A. that B. often that C. too often that D. too often to
51. A. disenchant B. enchant C. fascinate D. detract
52. A. such as B. as for C. e.g. D. as
53. A. would have left B. have left C. had left D. will leave
54. A. B. only C. either D. not only
55. A. much B. far too C. a D. more
Ⅳ. Reading Comprehension (30 points)
Directions: There are four passages in this part. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A, B, C and D. Your should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet A.
A famous Native American proverb tells us “We should not judge another person until we have walked two moons in his moccasins.” Our next suggestion for improvement is about “wearing those moccasins.” That is, we need to develop empathy---be able to see things from the point of view of others. Many researchers in the area of interpersonal and intercultural competence believe that our success as communicators depends, to a large extent, on our “skill at establishing and maintaining desired identities for both self and others.” “Identities” are actually the pictures of ourselves and the other person that we hold in our heads. We use these pictures I two ways. First, our identities help us to define the messages we receive from others; and second, they assist us in selecting the most appropriate message to send to another person. We have already discussed knowing ourselves; our focus now is on our need to develop empathy (emotional identification) and role-taking (cognitive adaptation) competence so that we can better know and adjust to the other person.
Before we begin our discussion of empathy and role taking, we need to restate two important ideas. First, as with so much of our counsel, we are again faced with a skill that is easier to talk about than to put into practice. The fact remains that however similar we may appear to be, there is something distinctive and unique about each of us. Our internal states are elusive and fleeting, and we know them only as distorted shadows. Knowing the other person, and predicting his or her reactions and needs, is a difficult and troublesome activity. And when we add the dimension of culture, we compound the problem.
Second, although we have focused primarily on culture, we also are concerned with the “interpersonal aspects” of intercultural communication. Perhaps the interpersonal dimension of communication is most evident in the area of empathy. As Miller and Steinberg noted, “To communicate interpersonally, one must heave the cultural and sociological levels of predications and psychically travel to the psychological level.” Simply put, empathy, while using knowledge about another’s culture to make predications, also demands that the point of analysis be the individual personality.
A number of behaviors can keep us from understanding the feelings, thoughts, and motives of another person---regardless of his or her culture. Before we look at some of the ways to improve our role-taking skills, it might be helpful to examine a few characteristics that can impede empathy.
56. What would be the most appropriate title for the passage?
A. Develop Empathy
B. Importance of Empathy
C. Importance of Identities
D. Relationship between Interpersonal Competence and Intercultural Communication
57. Why do we need to develop empathy according to the passage?
A. In order to have a better self identification
B. In order to improve our role-taking skills
C. In order to make better predications
D. In order to understand better and adapt ourselves to the other person
58. Which of the following is NOT true according to the passage?
A. In order to communicate successfully, we should learn to see things from the point of view of others.
B. To establish identities for both self and others is easier said than done.
C. It’s easier to understand another culture than to know the other person and predict his or her reactions and needs.
D. The individual personality is an important factor in the area of empathy.
59. In line 5 in the second paragraph, the word “elusive” could be replaced by “________” .
A. distracting and diverse
B. hard to comprehend or identify
C. hard to control
D. tending to disappear
60. A paragraph following the passage would most probably discuss ________ .
A. Establishing and Maintaining Desired Identities
B. How to Improve Role – Taking Skills
C. Hindrances to Empathy
D. Improving Empathy
The conflict between good and evil is a common theme running through the great literature and drama of the world, from the time of the ancient Greeks to all the present. The principle that conflict is the heart of dramatic action when illustrated by concrete examples, almost always turns up some aspects of the struggle between good and evil.
The idea that there is neither good nor evil – in any absolute moral or religious sense – is widespread in our times. There are various relativistic and behavioristic standards of ethics. If these standards even admit the distinction between good and evil, it is a relative matter and not as whirlwind of choices that lies at the center of living. In any such state of mind, conflict can at best, be only a petty matter, lacking true universality. The acts of the evildoer and of the virtuous man alike become dramatically neutralized. Imagine the reduced effect of Crime and Punishment or the Brothers Karamazoc had Dostoevsky thought that good and evil, as portrayed in those books, were wholly relative, and if he had no conviction about them.
You can’t have a vital literature if you ignore or shun evil. What you get then is the world of Pollyanna, goody-goody in place of the good. Cry, the Beloved Country is a great and dramatic novel because Alan Paton, in addition to being a skilled workman, sees with clear eyes both good and evil, differentiates them, pitches them into conflict with each other, and takes sides. He sees that the native boy Absalom Kumalo, who has been murdered, cannot be judged justly without taking into account the environment that has had part in shaping him. But Paton sees, too, that Absalom the individual, not society the abstraction, committed the act and is responsible for it. Mr. Paton understands mercy. He knows that this precious thing is not evoked by sentimental impulse, but by a searching examination of the realities of human action. Mercy follows a judgment; it does not precede it.
One of the novels by the talented Paul Bowles, Let It Come Down, is full of motion, full of sensational depravities, and is a crashing bore. The book recognizes no good, admits no evil, and is coldly indifferent to the moral behavior of its characters. It is a long shrug. Such a view of life is nondramatic and negates the vital essence of drama.
61. In our age, according to the author, a standpoint often taken in the area of ethics is the ________.
A. relativistic view of morals
B. greater concern with conscience
C. greater concern with evil
D. greater concern with universals
62. The author believes that great literature can bring a vivid picture of ________.
A. evil triumphing over good
B. good triumphing over evil
C. good and evil in constant conflict
D. dramatically neutralized good and evil
63. In the opinion of the author, Cry, the Beloved Country is a great and dramatic novel because of Paton’s ________.
A. insight into human behavior
B. behavioristic beliefs
C. treatment of good and evil as abstractions
D. willingness to make moral judgments
64. Why does the author use the expression “it is a long shrug” in referring to Bowles’s book?
A. Because he thinks that the book is too lengthy
B. Because he thinks that the book shows little concern with the conflict between good and evil.
C. Because he thinks that the book is monotonous.
D. Because he thinks that the book shows much concern with depravities.
65. According to the author, which of the following statements is NOT true?
A. Conflict between good and evil is the vital essence of drama
B. Let It Come Down tells the reader how to differentiate good from evil.
C. Crime and Punishment has a great effect because Dostoevsky shows his clear judgment of good and evil.
D. Relativistic standards of ethics cannot produce great drama.
Sociolinguists, sociologists, and anthropologists focus on the social context of bilingualism. In their view, language performance is closely tied to the speaker’s personal identity and identification with the culture of the second language. Social factors such as ethnic pride, racism, communication situations, prejudice, and attitudes are important variables here. Learning a second language has both benefits and costs. A person will not be motivated to learn a second language if it has negative effects or associations for the learner. What is important is the communicative effectiveness and social appropriateness of the new language. Becoming bilingual in the sociocultural perspective is a means of being a more effective and competent person in another culture.
A perennial question about bilingualism is whether bilinguals profit or lose because they have t maintain two language. The advantage of having two languages is referred to as additive bilingualism; subtractive bilingualism is the case when one language detracts from the other. Generally, developmental research has shown that bilingualism is not a reason for concern. Little evidence has been found to indicate that bilingual children suffer a disadvantage because of their knowledge of two languages. Wallace Lambert devoted his academic career to demonstrating the social and psychological advantages of bilingualism in Canada. Lambert found that French Canadian bilinguals were more likely than monolinguals to be advanced academically in French schools and that they develop a more diversified and more flexible intelligence. English Canadian children also do better their elementary school courses are conducted in French.育龙网 kaobo.net
The sociocultural perspective helps language professionals understand the cultural and social problems associated with second language acquisition (SLA) in contexts where the native language and foreign language are associated with conflicting cultural values. This happens when immigrant families move to the United States and the children want to quickly identify with American children by learning to speak English. The motivations here are not about becoming proficient but about avoiding being marked or stigmatized as a speaker of another tongue. When the new language provides cultural, personal, educational, or financial benefits for the learner, motivation and progress in SLA will be greater than when the second language confers no apparent advantage. In two – way Spanish- and English – language learning settings, children learning English progress faster than children learning Spanish because English has greater positive associations than Spanish does. One of the other consequences of these kinds of programs is that Spanish- speaking children tend to experience attrition in Spanish while learning English, whereas English – speaking children retain English when learning Spanish. This is a clear instance of subtractive and additive bilingualism.
The sociolinguistic perspective also provides answers for why people switch from one language or dialect to another in different social situations.
66. which of the following would be the best title for this passage?
A. Motivation and Progress in Second Language Acquisition
B. Relationship between Language and Culture
C. Socioculturalists’ Approach to Second Language Acquisition
D. The Importance of Second Language Acquisition
67. What does the author want to prove by giving Lambert’s research founding in the second paragraph?
A. French Canadian bilinguals in Canada were more likely to be advanced academically in French schools than in English schools.
B. French Canadian bilinguals do better than English Canadian bilinguals when their elementary school courses are conducted in French in Canada.
C. French Canadian bilinguals develop a more diversified and more flexible intelligence than English Canadian bilinguals in French schools in Canada.
D. Bilingual children hold some social and psychological advantages in schools.
68. What does the author mainly discuss in the third paragraph?
A. Relationship between Language and Cultural Values
B. Cultural and Social Influence in Second Language Acquisition
C. The Importance of Motivation in Second Language Acquisition
D. The Advantages of Additive Billingualism and Disadvantages of Subtractive Billingualism
69. What does the word “attrition” in line 14 in the third paragraph mean?
70. This passage would most likely be assigned for reading in a course in _________.
D. The Psychology of Language
In this book, then, democracy – or what Robert Dahl terms polyarchy – denotes a system of government that meets three essential conditions: meaningful and extensive competition among individuals and organized groups (especially political parties) for all effective positions of government power, at regular intervals and excluding the use of force; a “highly inclusive” level of political participation in the selection of leaders and policies, at least through regular and fair elections, such that no major (adult) social group is excluded; and a level of civil and political liberties – freedom of expression, freedom of the press, freedom to form and join organizations – sufficient to ensure the integrity of political competition and participation.
While this definition is, in itself, relatively straightforward, it presents a number of problems in application. For one, countries that broadly satisfy these criteria nevertheless do so to different degrees (and none do so perfectly, which is why Dahl prefers to call them polyarchies). The factors that explain this variation at the democratic end of the spectrum in degrees of popular control and freedom is an important intellectual problem, but it is different from the one that concerns us in this book, and so it is one we have had largely to bypass. We seek to determine why countries do or do not evolve, consolidate, maintain, lose and reestablish more or less democratic systems of government, and even this limited focus leaves us with conceptual problems.
The boundary between democratic and undemocratic is sometimes blurred and imperfect, and beyond it lies a much broader range of variation in political systems. We readily concede the difficulties of classification this variation has repeatedly caused us. Even if we look only at the political, legal, and constitutional structures, several of our cases appear to lie somewhere on the boundary between democratic and something less than democratic. The ambiguity is further complicated by the constraints on free political activity, organization, and expression, and the substantial remaining political prerogatives of military authorities, that may in practice make the system much less democratic than it might appear. In all cases, we have tried to pay serious attention to actual practice in assessing and classifying regimes. But still, this leaves us to make difficult and in some ways arbitrary judgments. The decision as to whether Thailand and Zimbabwe, for example, may today be considered full democracies is replete with nuance and ambiguity. Even in the case of Brazil, which was generally presumed democratic after the election of a civilian president in 1985, Alfred Stepan cautions that the extent of military prerogatives to participate in government and wield autonomous power put the country “on the margin of not being a democracy.” With the direct presidential election of December 1989, the transition may now be considered closed, but serious problems of democratic consolidation remain.
71. This passage probably appears in __________.
A. in the introduction of a book
B. in the conclusion of a book
C. in the middle part a book
D. in the acknowledgement of a book
72. According to the author, the reason for Dahl to term democracy as polyarchy is that __________.
A. there are so many different democratic countries
B. not only the extent to which so-called democratic countries meet the three conditions is different, but also the democratic situations in all these countries need improving
C. Dahl wants to persuade people to accept his view
D. it is easier to understand democracy as polyarchy
73. The purpose of the author in this book is __________.
A. to give a different definition of democracy from Dahl
B. to tell people why democracy is important
C. to find out the reason why different countries have different democratic experience
D. to try to give a clear classification of democracy
74. According to the author, the difficulties to classify democracy may include __________.
A. a lot of varied political systems existing beyond the boundary between democratic and undemocratic
B. the indistinct and unsatisfactory boundary between democratic and undemocratic
C. the lack of regular and fair elections
D. Both A and B
75. Why are three countries Thailand, Zimbabwe and Brazil mentioned in the third paragraph?
A. They are considered full democracies.
B. They have established democratic systems.
C. It is very difficult to assess and classify the state of democracy in these three countries according to their actual practice.
D. They all are under the control of military authorities.
Directions: In this section, there is a passage with five questions. After you have read the passage, answer the questions B5, B6, B7, B8, B9 and B10 in English on Answer Sheet B.
The ideas that flourished during the early years of cognitive science had a strong influence on the creative mind of a young psychologist named Jerome Bruner. In 1956, with colleagues Jacqueline Goodnow and George Austin, Bruner, published an ingenious and important account of categorization called A Study of Thinking. In it, they analyzed categorizing and expressed their belief that it explains why humans are not overwhelmed by environmental complexity. Bruner, Goodnow, and Austin effectively showed that their research participants actively participated in the classification process. As you can imagine, the great value of Bruner’s work in the 1950s and 1960s lay in the energy it supplied to the renewed cognitive movement. Gardner noted that Bruner’s study participants were treated as active, constructive problem solvers, rather than as passive reactors to whatever stimuli were presented to them. The active construction of solutions to problems implies that students turn to their cultural environment for clues to aid them in their task.
According to Bruner and his associates, three types of concepts exist: conjunctive, disjunctive, and relational. Conjunctive concepts rely on the joint presence of several attributes. These attributes are abstracted from many individual experiences with an object, thing, or event. So there are categories, such as boy, car, book, and orange. Disjunctive concepts are composed of concepts, any one of whose attributes may be used in classification. That is, one or another of its attributes enables an object to be placed in a particular category. A good example of the disjunctive category is the strike in baseball. A strike may be a ball thrown by the pitcher that is over the plate and between a batter’s shoulders and knees, or a ball at which the better swings and misses, or a ball that the batter hits as a foul (outside the playing limits of the diamond). Any one of these attributes enables the observer to classify it as a strike. Relational concepts are formed by the relationship that exists among defining attributes. The authors illustrate this category by using income brackets. There are many income levels or classes, all of which exist because of the relationship among income, eligible expenses, and number of dependents. The combination of these properties determines an individual’s income class. These are relational categories.
Bruner, Goodnow, and Austin concluded that categorizing implies more than merely recognizing instances. Rules are learned and then applied to new situations. Students learn that a sentence—subject, object, predicate—is the basic unit in writing, in history class as well as in English class. The various categories (conjunctive, disjunctive, relational) are really rules for grouping attributes to define the positive instances of any concept. Bruner’s work on discovery learning, along with that of Piaget and Vygotsky, led to constructivism, the current prevailing approach to the study and application of cognitive psychology.
Answer the following questions briefly according to what you have just read.
B5. What is the most appropriate title for this passage?
B6. According to Bruner’s theory, why wouldn’t humans be overwhelmed by environmental complexity?
B7. What is mainly discussed in the second paragraph?
B8. What do Bruner and his associates want to illustrate by giving the example of the strike in baseball?
B9. What is the function of Bruner’s theory of categorization?
B10. What is most likely to be talked about in the following paragraph?
V. Translation (15 points)
Directions: Put the following into Chinese, and write your translation on Answer Sheet B. You don’t need to translate the names of people.
Choosing the appropriate from of capitalist development is generally thought to be a major responsibility of the state. Variations of the capitalist model are primarily the result of politic, al choices by governments past and present. Models diverge on two major issues: how far the state intervenes in the market economy by ownership and control of the means of production and distribution and by acting as the regulatory authority over private enterprise; and how far it assumes responsibility for social welfare. The issue of divergence was first raised in Andrew Shonfield’s Modern Capitalism. More recently, Michael Albert in France has drawn a sharp distinction between what he calls Rhenish capitalism and the Anglo-Saxon variety. American authors especially have drawn equally sharp distinctions between ‘western’ models of capitalism and ‘Asian’ ones, of which Japan is the prototype, and Korea, Taiwan and Singapore are regional variants. In the Asian model, the state more actively intervenes to protect domestic enterprises from foreign competition, to provide them with ready assess to capital for expansion, while using what political measures seem necessary to the government to maintain political stability and confidence in the economic future.
In the economic literature on development, too, there has been much discussion over the role of public policy in developing countries in choosing between import substitution and export orientation. The weight of argument by professional liberal economists, and by officials of the IMF and World Bank has been strongly against import substitution and protectionism, even though the east Asian record of success in gaining market shares suggests the either-or choice is over-simple. As Singer has argued, export-orientation is often possible only after an earlier phase of import-substitution.
For present purposes, however, the question is not so much which opinion or interpretation was the correct one, for any particular economy or at any specific time, as whether or not the governments of states still have as much freedom to choose the national development strategy as they have had in the past. Put another way, are the differences between forms of capitalism likely to persist in future, or are the forces of structural change pushing all governments along a path to greater convergence between models of capitalism? If the evidence of convergence suggests the latter, then the freedom and responsibility of states to choose between variants of capitalist development is reduced.育龙网 kaobo.net
Ⅵ. Guided Writing (10 points)
Directions: You should spend about 30 minutes on this task. The title of the composition is given below. You should write at least 150 words. Write the composition in 3 paragraphs. In the first paragraph, state what your view is on the topic. In the second paragraph, give at least two reasons to support your view. Finally, in the last paragraph, give a brief summary of what you have discussed in the preceding paragraphs. Remember to write in readable handwriting on Answer Sheet B.